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densytometria warszawa

Densitometry

It is the only test that can confirm or exclude osteoporosis and assess the risk of the disease (performed on patients from 17 years old). Densitometry is painless, as is ultrasound and X-ray. The radiation dose is minimal.

Only densitometry of the spine and femoral neck allows to assess the risk of fractures and decide on treatment. Forearm and heel tests are not recommended and no diagnosis can be made from them. Spinal densitometry best evaluates early perimenopausal changes that are not visible in the femoral neck. Cervical examination assesses the risk of long bone fractures. A full densitometric examination includes the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur.

Densitometry is a basic test in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopenia. It is a two-dimensional version of computed tomography. It is based on radiological evaluation of the absorption difference between the bone and fat and muscle tissue. The measurement value is expressed in two-dimensional grams (BMC – Bone Mineral Content) and in g/cm2 (BMD – Bone Mineral Density).

Densitometry can also be successfully performed in the diagnosis of atypical infections caused by CHLAMYDIA and as an auxiliary method in establishing a diet for people suffering from obesity.

The tests are performed on a high quality GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer (reference model of bone densitometer by General Electric Medical, USA). The percentage error of measurement for the densitometer we use is %CV = 0.08% (on average for older types of densitometers %CV is about 1%, the permissible error %CV=1.8% [ISCD standard]).

LSC (smallest significant change) for the densitometer we use

LSC = 2.77 * %CV, LSC = 2.77 * 0.08%, LSC = 0.002 g/cm2

[ISCD permissible error LSC = 0.050 g/cm2]

The accuracy of the device allows, if necessary, for reliable monitoring of patients at 3-month periods (important in steroid therapy patients).

Who should report for densitometry?

  • women over 65 years of age, men over 70 years of age
  • postmenopausal women with osteoporosis risk factors
  • persons after fractures or under the influence of diseases, medications or factors that are associated with reduced bone mass or that cause accelerated bone mass loss
  • before the start of the drug therapy
  • during treatment to monitor the therapy
  • anyone whose densitometric examination will induce you to start treatment
  • women who have had hormone replacement therapy discontinued

More information

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that leads to bone fractures with slight injuries. It is characterized by low bone density (which we measure by densitometry) and microarchitecture disorders of bone barrels. These factors lead to a decrease in bone strength and, as a result, to bone fractures under the influence of small forces. Slightly lower than in the case of osteoporosis, the reduction of bone density below normal is called osteopenia. Osteopenia usually precedes osteoporosis by several years.

What is osteoporosis caused by?

There are 3 types of Osteoporosis: Type I perimenopausal, caused by the rapid destruction of bone tissue due to oestrogen deficiency. The formation is normal, but the predominance of bone resorption results in a rapid decrease in bone mineral density and strength, and as a result of fractures. Type II is characteristic for older people caused by hyperparathyroidism and slowing down the formation of new bone by osteoblasts, wchich is why the osteoclasts that destroy the bone have an advantage. Type III secondary osteoporosis, which develops due to other diseases.

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What are the consequences of osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis results in fractures that occur in a low-power injury. The wrist, vertebral bodies, femoral neck (“hip fracture”), humerus, ribs are fractured. The frequency of fractures increases with age. The life risk of a fracture in a woman over 40 years of age is 40% including forearm 16%, hips 15%, spine 32%.

The earliest wrist and vertebral fractures occur, later the number of hip fractures increases. Further fractures occur up to 75 times more often in people who have already had one fracture and have low bone density. In elderly people, fractures are the cause of irreversible complications from the cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary and digestive systems. The most serious problem is hip fractures, as the mortality rate during the first year is 20% in women and about 60% in men! All patients after a hip fracture require third party care for the rest of their lives.

What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?

The vast majority of people who are diagnosed with osteoporosis are surprised by the diagnosis. Osteoporosis is most often detected accidentally during densitometric tests done “out of the blue” in apparently healthy people at risk or during forearm screening during promotional events.

In the early stages of the disease, when there are no fractures, the vast majority of patients do not experience any symptoms. The patient does not feel osteoporosis like other often serious diseases, such as hypertension or increased cholesterol levels.

It is not infrequent that the first symptom of the disease is a fracture at the injury, just as the first symptom of hypertension is a stroke to the brain and atherosclerosis or ischaemic stroke.

Some patients who progress rapidly experience slight pain in their spine or long bones. Sometimes it is possible to see the features of osteoporosis on a regular X-ray, but it should be emphasized that the changes caused by osteoporosis are visible on a regular X-ray only when the disease is very advanced. The lack of features of osteoporosis on the picture does not mean that the patient is not affected.

„The BMI (Body Mass Index) is a body mass index that allows you to determine the right weight. To calculate it, you need to divide the body mass in kilograms by the square of height in meters. By calculating the BMI we can determine the amount of body fat.”

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